formation of liquids in gas systems as they vary with pressure and temperature variations
drying by expansion is shown to remove the majority of condensation
at lower velocities, stratified, wave and atomized flows are observed, but at velocities over 5 m/s and annular flow regimes are observed
liquid accumulation at low areas is discussed as liquids can accumulate at these crossings and can form liquid “slugs”.
at velocities of ~4 m/s (often seen during times of increased periods of gas use such as cold snaps of seasonally) these slugs are forced through the low location.
gas and liquid flow behaviours at tee-branch points are discussed separately, observing that:
Gas divides between the branches
in the case of annular down to laminar flows liquids are shown to follow the tee preferentially until gas flow is reduced drastically (even when branch dia. is smaller)
the conclusion is that in a branched network, liquid flow will typically terminate at a single branch
traditional separation with “siphon traps” is discussed, and shows such separation is effective only when liquids flow along the bottom of the pipeline
at higher flowrates, and as soon as annular and/or turbulent flow occurs, the siphon’s effectiveness deteriorates as it misses the rest of the diameter’s liquid flows
even in the case of a rising branchline, liquids are shown to prefer to flow uphill through the branch rather than the main line.
in both laboratory and actual situations empirical findings confirm the 5 m/s threshold
Gasunie’s model of what is now available as Innopipe’s non-piggable drip design is shown.
a system much like Innopipe’s gravity drain system shows its effectiveness in calming down liquids behaviour by removing it quickly from the main line, reducing blow-by.
various cyclonic devices are shown and discussed.
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